How did London civilians respond to the German airship raids of 1915?
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Conclusion Acknowledgements Bibliography
Bibliography

Unpublished Primary Sources

The National Archives, London

    AIR 1/543/16/15/4, Reports on air raids, various districts: Zeppelin or aircraft, April - June 1915 and June - November 1917.

    AIR 1/552/16/15/38, Police reports and correspondence: air raids on England, January - June 1915.

    AIR 1/563/16/15/69, British and foreign press cuttings about Zeppelins, April 1915 - December 1916.

    AIR 1/567/16/15/120, Record of Zeppelin attacks on England, carried out before 9.30pm, January 1915 - November 1916.

    AIR 1/605/16/15/247, Miscellaneous reports on various air raids, 1915.

    AIR 1/1259/204/9/1, Home defence: action against Zeppelin raids, October 1915 - April 1916.

    AIR 1/1259/204/9/1A, Home defence: reports on Zeppelin raids, October 1915.

    AIR 1/1363/204/22/16, Zeppelin attack reports, May - June 1915.

    AIR 1/2148/209/3/171, Four maps showing tracks of Zeppelins when raiding England, August - October 1915.

    AIR 1/2557, Methods of destroying Zeppelins, 5 June 1915.

    MEPO 2/1650, Zeppelin Raid on London: May 31 Divisional reports, 1915.

Imperial War Museum, London

ID Number: Q 80366, The First World War 1914-1918 Poster Collection, 1914 - 1918.

ID Number: Misc 208 (3020), Letter describing the Zeppelin Raid on London 17 August 1915, August 1915.


Serial Publications

British Library Newspapers, Colindale

  Daily Mail

    27 July 1909

    12 May 1915

    13 May 1915

    14 May 1915

    1 June 1915

    2 June 1915

    3 June 1915

    5 June 1915

    18 August 1915

    19 August 1915

    21 August 1915

    8 September 1915

    9 September 1915

    10 September 1915

    11 September 1915

    13 September 1915

    14 September 1915

    15 September 1915

    16 September 1915

    14 October 1915

    15 October 1915

    16 October 1915

    18 October 1915

    19 October 1915

    30 January 2007

  Daily Sketch

    1 June 1916

    2 June 1915

    3 June 1915

    18 August 1915

    19 August 1915

    20 August 1915

    8 September 1915

    9 September 1915

    10 September 1915

    11 September 1915

    14 October 1915

    15 October 1915

    16 October 1915

  Hackney & Stoke Newington Recorder

    4 June 1915

    11 June 1915

    18 June 1915

  Lewisham Borough News

    10 September 1915

    17 September 1915

    24 September 1915

  Lewisham Journal

    10 September 1915

    17 September 1915

    24 September 1915

  London Mail

    5 June 1915

    21 August 1915

    11 September 1915

    16 October 1915

  London Opinion

    5 June 1915

    21 August 1915

    11 September 1915

    16 October 1915

  Public Opinion

    22 January 1915

    4 June 1915

    11 June 1915

    18 June 1915

    20 August 1915

    27 August 1915

    10 September 1915

    17 September 1915

    15 October 1915

    22 October 1915

  Punch Vol. CXLVIII

    6 January 1915

    13 January 1915

    20 January 1915

    27 January 1915

    3 February 1915

    10 February 1915

    17 February 1915

    24 February 1915

    3 March 1915

    10 March 1915

    17 March 1915

    24 March 1915

    31 March 1915

    7 April 1915

    14 April 1915

    21 April 1915

    28 April 1915

    5 May 1915

    12 May 1915

    19 May 1915

    26 May 1915

    2 June 1915

    9 June 1915

    16 June 1915

    23 June 1915

    30 June 1915

  Punch Vol. CXLIX

    7 July 1915

    14 July 1915

    21 July 1915

    28 July 1915

    4 August 1915

    11 August 1915

    18 August 1915

    25 August 1915

    1 September 1915

    8 September 1915

    15 September 1915

    22 September 1915

    29 September 1915

    6 October 1915

    13 October 1915

    20 October 1915

    27 October 1915

    3 November 1915

    10 November 1915

    17 November 1915

    24 November 1915

    1 December 1915

    8 December 1915

    15 December 1915

    22 December 1915

    29 December 1915

  The Borough of West Ham, East Ham and Stratford Express

    2 June 1915

    5 June 1915

    9 June 1915

    12 June 1915

  The City of London Illustrated

    September 1915

    October 1915

  The City Press

    11 September 1915

    18 September 1915

    16 October 1915

    23 October 1915

  The Daily News & Leader

    2 June 1915

    4 June 1915

    15 October 1915

    18 October 1915

  The Docks Gazette

    September 1915

    October 1915

  The Eastern Mercury

    1 June 1915

    8 June 1915

    24 August 1915

  The East London Observer

    5 June 1915

    12 June 1915

    21 August 1915

    11 September 1915

  The Evening News

    1 June 1915

    2 June 1915

    3 June 1915

    4 June 1915

    18 August 1915

    19 August 1915

    20 August 1915

    21 August 1915

    14 October 1915

    15 October 1915

    16 October 1915

    18 October 1915

    19 October 1915

    20 October 1915

    21 October 1915

    22 October 1915

  The Evening Standard and St. James’s Gazette

    1 June 1915

    2 June 1915

    3 June 1915

    4 June 1915

    5 June 1915

    7 June 1916

    8 June 1915

    18 August 1915

    19 August 1915

    20 August 1915

    21 August 1915

    8 September 1915

    9 September 1915

    10 September 1915

    11 September 1915

    13 September 1915

    14 September 1915

    15 September 1915

    14 October 1915

    15 October 1915

    16 October 1915

    20 October 1915

    21 October 1915

    26 October 1915

  The Globe and Traveller

    20 January 1915

    21 January 1915

    1 June 1915

    2 June 1915

    3 June 1915

    18 August 1915

    19 August 1915

    20 August 1915

    8 September 1915

    9 September 1915

    10 September 1915

    11 September 1915

    14 October 1915

    15 October 1915

    16 October 1915

  The Hackney & Kingsland Gazette

    2 June 1915

    4 June 1915

    7 June 1915

    9 June 1915

    16 June 1915

  The Holborn and Finsbury Guardian

    10 September 1915

    16 October 1915

  The Illustrated London News

    5 June 1915

    12 June 1915

    21 August 1915

    11 September 1915

    18 September 1915

    16 October 1915

    23 October 1915

  The Leytonstone Express & Independent, etc

    5 June 1915

    21 August 1915

  The London Illustrated Weekly

    14 October 1915

  The New York Herald

    15 October 1915

  The New York Times

    4 June 1915

    15 October 1915

  The Shoreditch Observer, Hackney Express, Bethnal Green Chronicle and Finsbury Gazette

    20 August 1915

    27 August 1915

  The South Eastern Herald

    10 September 1915

    17 September 1915

  The Times

    4 January 1915

    20 January 1915

    21 January 1915

    22 January 1915

    25 January 1915

    28 January 1915

    10 February 1915

    15 February 1915

    26 February 1915

    2 April 1915

    12 May 1915

    17 May 1915

    1 June 1915

    2 June 1915

    3 June 1915

    4 June 1915

    7 June 1915

    10 June 1915

    23 June 1915

    18 June 1915

    18 August 1915

    19 August 1915

    20 August 1915

    21 August 1915

    9 September 1915

    10 September 1915

    14 September 1915

    18 September 1915

    24 September 1915

    25 September 1915

    1 October 1915

    14 October 1915

    15 October 1915

    18 October 1915

    19 October 1915

    20 October 1915

    21 October 1915

    22 October 1915

    1 November 1916

    6 November 1915

    8 November 1915

    10 November 1915

    15 November 1915

    20 November 1915

    10 December 1915

  The Walthamstow, Leyton and Chingford Guardian

    20 August 1915

  The Woolwich Herald

    15 October 1915

    22 October 1915

  Walthamstow Sentinel

    January 1915

  Westminster & Pimlico News

    15 October 1915

    22 October 1915

  Westminster Gazette

    14 August 1916

  Woolwich Gazette & Plumstead News

    19 October 1915

    26 October 1915


Published Primary Sources

Hedin, Robert (ed.) The Zeppelin Reader: Stories, Poems, and Songs from the Age of Airships (Iowa City, 1998)

Jones, Michael Wynn The Cartoon History of Britain (London, 1971)


Published Secondary Sources: Books

Banks, Arthur A Military Atlas of the First World War (London, 1989)

Botting, Douglas Dr. Eckener’s Dream Machine: The Great Zeppelin and the Dawn of the Air Travel (New York, 2001)

Brown, Malcolm The Imperial War Museum Book of the First World War: A Great Conflict Recalled in Previously Unpublished Letters, Diaries and Memoirs (London, 1993)

Cross, Wilbur Zeppelins of World War One (Lincoln, 2001)

de Syon, Guillaume Zeppelin! Germany and the Airship, 1900-1939 (Maryland, 2002)

Fegan, Thomas The ‘Baby Killers’: German Air Raids on Britain in the First World War (South Yorkshire, 2002)

Hammerton, J. A. (ed.) The Concise Universal Encyclopedia (London, 1929)

Hammerton, J. A. (ed.) The War Illustrated: A Pictorial Record of the Conflict of Nations Volume 1-4, (London, 1914-1918) Kenyon, J. P. The Wordsworth Dictionary of British History (Hertfordshire, 1994)

Massie, Robert K. Castles of Steel (London, 2004)

Morison, Frank War on Great Cities (London, 1937)

Morris, Joseph German Air Raids on Britain 1914-1918 (Sussex, 1993)

Pankhurst, E. Sylvia The Home Front (London, 1987)

Poolman, Kenneth Zeppelins over England (London, 1975)

Rimell, Raymond. L. Zeppelin! A Battle for Air Supremacy in World War One (London, 1984)

Robinson, Douglas The Zeppelin in Combat: History of the German Naval Airship Division 1912-1918 (England, 1966)

Toland, John The Great Dirigibles: Their Triumphs & Disasters (Toronto, 1972)

Wells, H. G. The War in the Air (Middlesex, 1973)

Williams, John The Home Fronts 1914-1918 (London, 1972)


Published Secondary Sources: Articles

Bryant, Mark ‘The Man with the Poison Pen’ in History Today, Volume 56, Issue 11, November 2006, pp. 60-61.

Fowler, Simon ‘War Charity Begins at Home’ in History Today, Volume 49, Number 9, September 1999, pp. 17-23.

Jourdain, Margaret ‘Air Raid Reprisals and Starvation by Blockade’ in International Journal of Ethics, Volume 28, Number 4, 1918, p. 542-553.

Paris, Michael ‘Fear of Flying: The Fiction of War 1886-1916’ in History Today, Volume 43, Number 6, June 1993, pp. 29-35.

Roberts, Stephen ‘Did the British People Welcome the Declaration of War in August 1914?’ in History Review, Issue 52, September 2005, pp. 48-52.

Spaatz, Carl ‘Evolution of Air Power: Our Urgent Need for an Air Force Second to None’ in Military Affairs, Volume 11, Number 1, Spring 1947, pp. 2-16.

Ward, Paul ‘‘Women of Britain Say Go’: Women’s Patriotism in the First World War’ in Oxford Journals, Volume 12, Number 1, 2001, pp. 23-45.

Winter, Jay ‘A Taste of Ashes’ in History Today, Volume 48, Number 11, November 1998, pp. 8-13.


Internet Website Addresses

Archives of Ontario ‘Canadian Posters of the First World War’, https://www.archives.gov.on.ca/ENGLISH/exhibits/posters/index.html.

Georgetown University ‘Special Collections: WW1 Posters - The Posters’, https://www.library.georgetown.edu/dept/speccoll/britpost/posters.htm.

Mass-Observation ‘A brief history of Mass-Observation’, Archive https://www.massobs.org.uk/history.html.


Television Programmes

BBC Timewatch ‘Zeppelin: The First Blitz’ on BBC 2, 2 February 2007.

‘… the little island in the silver seas was at the end of its immunity…’
H. G. Wells, The War in the Air (Middlesex, 1973), p. 140.
Zeppelin 1915 Attacking a Zeppelin

Zeppelins are capable of carrying, in addition to their crews, bombs weighing in the aggregate about a ton and a half. The chief menace to a Zeppelin is attack by aeroplanes, which are much swifter and capable of rising much higher. They can circle around a Zeppelin and drop bombs on it. So Zeppelins are frequently mounted with guns of high-angle range to repel attacking aeroplanes. To discharge a gun is fraught with danger to the Zeppelin, but that danger must be faced.

J. A. Hammerton (ed.) The War Illustrated: A Pictorial Record of the Conflict of Nations, Volume 1, (London, 1915) p. 493.
The forward gondola

Forward gondola of a Zeppelin, placed under the keel at the end of the great dirigible. The crew and engines are accommodated in two of these long, gondola-shaped cars.

J. A. Hammerton (ed.) The War Illustrated: A Pictorial Record of the Conflict of Nations, Volume 4, (London, 1916) p. 45.
Zeppelin Gondola 1915
How did London civilians respond to the German airship raids of 1915? Comments on this website to adrienne_barthram@hotmail.com

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Home Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
Conclusion Acknowledgements Bibliography